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Information About Football Games

Professional and collegiate football draws millions of fans to stadiums and television viewing every autumn. The NFL and NCAA collaborate to keep this high-intensity, high-impact sport fair, safe and entertaining. They publish information about football games for the understanding of players and fans.
Two 11-player teams play the game on a turf or synthetic field measuring 100 yards long and 53 yards wide. White lines cross the field at 10-yard intervals, starting from zero at each end with the 50-yard line marked at mid-field. Smaller white hash marks at 1-yard intervals help the players, officials and fans gauge a team’s progress more precisely. Beyond each goal line is an end zone 10 yards deep. That’s where the points pile up. Each team defends its own end zone. When the offensive team, which has the ball, can fight through the defenders and take the ball into its opponent’s end zone, it scores points.
In football, the highest score wins. A touchdown scores six points when the offensive team carries the ball into the end zone or catches it there or intercepts a pass or recovers a fumbled ball. A touchdown earns an attempt to score one or two extra points. A football kicked through the goal posts wins one point. A run or catch in the end zone wins two. The play starts at the defense’s 2-yard line. Field goals score three points for the offensive team if they cannot fight their way to the defender’s end zone. The offensive place kicker must kick the football between the goal posts from anywhere on the field for this score, though successful attempts from beyond the 45-yard line are rare. The defense can score two points on a safety when the offensive ball carrier is caught behind his goal line and tackled by the defense to stop the play.
Regulation time for a football game is one hour, divided into four 15-minute quarters. A halftime between quarters two and three allows 12 minutes for each team to convene off-field to discuss strategy. Between the other quarters, the teams have two minutes to switch the end zones they defend. Each half of the game begins with the defensive team’s kickoff, delivering the ball to the offensive side.
Football is played by some of the most powerful athletes in sports, sometimes topping 300 lbs., who often hurl themselves at each other at full speed. Without rules the game could become a spectacle of injuries and unfair advantages. The NFL and NCAA promote extensive and continually evolving rules regulating protective uniform and equipment standards, legal tackling and blocking practices, standards of sportsmanlike conduct and fair scoring. Fans want to see intense competition but appreciate the rules that make the sport fair and protect the players to play another day.

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The Importance of Rules in Sports

Rules provide an agreement of understanding to competition. In sports, rules define what is allowed or not allowed to occur during situations on and off the court. Rules govern anything from wearing proper uniforms to how to keep score during games of different levels of competition. The rules of a game apply to players, coaches and officials, and vary among different sports and age groups.
The rules for players vary depending on the sport they play and the level they play at. This prevents a bias against things such as age, development and skills on teams. For example, playing football on a high school level involves more rules than a peewee football game. Players are expected to follow rules governed by their team such as behavior, attending practices, camps and drills and wearing the correct uniform. Players may also be expected to train and practice outside of their playing season to stay physically fit and updated on their skills.
To be able to successfully train a team and mentor players during a game, coaches should fully understand the rules of the sport they coach. By not following the correct rules of the sport, the team could face penalties caught by officials during games. Many sports programs require that coaches take continuing education courses to stay updated on rules and procedures. In addition to game play rules, coaches need to understand additional aspects of sports rules such as proper game ethics, nutrition and first aid, and be able to implement these aspects during drills, practices and games.
Sports players and coaches depend on officials including umpires and referees to understand all of the rules of a game. Officials should also understand the signaling and whistling codes for the sports they govern. During games, officials track scores, keep time and resolve in-game discrepancies based on the rules for that game. To help officials, players should also keep updated on game rules.
Sports’ rules help prevent injuries during practice and in games. Rules govern things such as access to working safety gear, including helmets, padding and mouth guards.

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What Does a Center & a Wing Do in a Game of Touch Football?

A more accessible version of Australian rules football, touch football provides the same general action without the brutal tackling and hard hitting. In touch football, merely touching the ball-carrier halts play. Only six players take the field per team, with each side generally consisting of two wingers, two links and two middles, also known as centers. The wingers and centers have decidedly different responsibilities.
As their name indicates, touch football centers play in the middle of the field. The two links line up outside the centers, one on each side, while the wingers take position on the extreme outside ends. While circumstances during play may require covering the entire field, centers tend to remain in the middle and wingers generally stick to the outer edges.
Since he¡¯s in the middle of the action, a good touch football center needs to have excellent communication skills, helping direct and organize his teammates into a cohesive unit. The center must also possess superb ball skills, as he’s often passing back to teammates streaking up field on the outside. Wingers are typically the team¡¯s fastest players and score the most touchdowns. Good wingers can sustain their speed throughout the match, and also demonstrate anticipation skills to read plays and exploit opposing defenses. Wingers must be quick on their feet and highly evasive.
Players are prohibited from passing the ball forward, making centers responsible for aggressively pushing the ball up the middle of the field to gain territory and open outside lanes for teammates. Wingers tend to stretch the field, using their speed to swing in behind teammates for quick passes before accelerating into the attack.
Centers are typically the best defensive players on a touch football team. It takes six touches, a fumble or an interception to change possession, and the centers are often the ones clogging the middle of the field and funneling runners into teammates for easy touches. Wingers can be a bit more aggressive on defense, using their speed to race forward and challenge passes in an attempt to snag interceptions or trigger fumbles. Wingers must also use their speed to run down any defensive mistakes.

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Cheerleading Moves & Cheers for Beginners

When you are just beginning in cheerleading, there are many things to learn. You must master motions, cheers, jumps, tumbling, formations and stunts. It is a good idea to start slowly, mastering a small handful of items in each category before learning more. Practice your motions and cheers in front of a mirror to perfect them.
Beginners should master these top five easy motions, working hard to perfect placement and execution of just a handful of motions prior to learning any more. Touchdown involves raising both hands straight above your head. Keep your arms slightly forward, with your biceps close to your ears. Next work on T motion. Extend your arms straight out to the side at shoulder level. Master both High and Low V by making a V shape with your arms overhead for High V, or pointing down for Low V. The final basic motion you should master is Clasp. In a Clasp, you clasp your hands in front of you with your fists just below your chin.
If you are a beginner, the cheers you use should be simple with few words and few motions. Make sure you have no more than one motion per word. Use Clasps to keep time during your cheers and to simplify more difficult cheers that have many motions. Focus on clearly projecting the words of the cheer, getting your volume from your diaphragm instead of your throat.
Even as a beginning cheerleader, your cheer library should include many types of cheers. You need chants for when your team is on offense — “2, 2, we want 2!” — and on defense — “Steal that ball!” You also need all-purpose chants like, “Go! Fight! Win!” Chants typically are repeated three or more times. Crowd-involvement cheers are those that have a special part the crowd is supposed to cheer back to you. For example, you cheer: “We say Go, you say Fight — Go!” and the crowd should yell back, “Fight!” Finally, you need longer cheers that can be performed out on the floor during halftime or between quarters. These cheers are typically only repeated once.
Here is a beginner offense chant you can learn: “S-C-O-R-E” “Score Team Score!” Start with Clasps for “S, C, O.” Quickly add “R” in between Clasps, and then Clasp again on “E.” Hit a Low V motion on “Score.” Come back to a Clasp on “Team.” You can substitute the name of your team’s mascot here instead of “Team.” End the cheer with a High V on the “Score!” Since this is a chant, come back down to a Clasp, saying nothing. Then repeat the chant two more times.

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Difference Between Turbo Jam & Turbo Fire

At-home workout DVDs are one of the best low-cost methods for getting fit. Yet for the beginner, the choices are staggering. Among them are the “Turbo” series from Chalene Johnson. Turbo Fire, which debuted in 2010, follows on the heels of her earlier DVD series, Turbo Jam. It¡¯s helpful for the person new to either working out or to at-home programs to ascertain whether Turbo Jam or Turbo Fire is the best starting point. Always check with your doctor to determine if you’re ready to start a new workout routine.
Turbo Jam and Turbo Fire were both created by and feature fitness trainer Chalene Johnson. Each series features a combination of kickboxing and hip-hop moves, with plenty of music to keep things lively. As their names suggest, both series rely on Johnson¡¯s “turbo” concept, which mixes intense cardio intervals with periods of more sustained cardio moves, as well as stretching and strength training. Both programs are produced by Beachbody, the fitness corporation behind popular DVD and video sets such as the P9OX and Insanity series. Johnson describes both Turbo Jam and Turbo Fire as natural outgrowths of her original Turbo Kick, which originated in the late 1990s.
Although Turbo Fire has a “new to class” option, Turbo Jam is the better choice for beginners. Johnson describes the program¡¯s inception as a “ramp” to her original kickboxing and hip-hop classes. Turbo Fire is geared to people with some experience in high-intensity interval training, although it (like Turbo Jam) includes low-intensity versions of each workout. Johnson notes that the core of Turbo Fire is a series of short duration intervals that “kill you.” Obviously, this concept is a bit daunting for the beginner, making Turbo Jam more user-friendly to people new to the high interval workouts. According to Johnson, Turbo Fire is intended to fill the gap for more experienced fitness buffs who plateau if high interval isn¡¯t interspaced with regular cardio and strength training.
Turbo Jam comes with a guidebook, flashcards to reinforce the program¡¯s signature moves and a link to online support. Its main components are two DVDs with a total of five workouts — an introduction to the core eleven moves used in Turbo Jam, a 40-minute muscle-sculpting workout, a 20-minute full-body workout, a 45-minute dance cardio workout and a 20-minute workout focusing on standing abdominal moves. A “bonus package” available on the Beachbody website includes weighted workout gloves, a related kickboxing DVD and a meal-planning tool. Beachbody sells Turbo Jam for about $60.
Along with its larger group of DVDs, Turbo Fire comes with a fitness band, a suggested workout schedule and a related guidebook. The 10 DVDs include an introduction to the high-intensity interval training and traditional cardio concepts of the workouts. The workouts themselves range from high interval/stretch, cardio/stretch and sculpt/tone routines, each lasting between 25 to 60 minutes. The “bonus package” includes nutrition guides, online support, an additional sculpting band and a DVD focusing on abs. Turbo Fire sells for about $120.

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How Has the Game Rugby Changed Over the Years?

The story goes that a schoolboy named William Webb Ellis played a soccer match at Rugby School in England in 1823. During the game Webb Ellis picked up the football and ran — giving birth to an entirely new sport. Though the story may be exaggerated, rugby has developed into one of the world’s most popular sports. Many of the rules are the same today as they were more than 100 years ago.
The earliest recorded laws of rugby, written by Rugby School pupils in 1845, are similar to today’s rules. The notion of offside, the banning of forward passes and the idea of running a ball out of “touch” all are featured in the early codes. Paintings of early rugby games show dozens of players, instead of the 15 per team today. The rules also controversially promoted “hacking” — the kicking and tripping of an opponent’s legs. This was soon banned and replaced with the shoulder tackles seen in the modern game. Rugby in the 1800s also was far more focused on kicking, rather than the modern aim of try scoring.
In 1871, the Rugby Football Union was established. The Union aimed to create a code of rules for clubs in England and across the world. Former Rugby school pupils wrote the new laws, according to archives collected at Kings College London. Soon after in 1871 Scotland and England played the first international match. The International Rugby Board was founded in 1886 to govern the laws of rugby for all participating nations.
The biggest change in the structure of rugby came in 1895. An argument about paying players resulted in 12 teams from northern England splitting from the Rugby Union to create their own league. The new format allowed player payment and allowed only 13 players per team. Today, the format is still known as Rugby League. Another form of rugby grew from Rugby Union. Rugby Sevens allowed only seven players per team, creating a more open game that suited faster, slighter players.
Until 1995 all Rugby Union players were classified as amateurs; they often had day jobs and played rugby when possible. However, as TV and sponsorship revenues increased, players argued for professional status. In 1995 the International Rugby Board agreed and permitted payment to Union players. Rugby League players had been paid for their sport for almost 100 years prior.
Rugby, both League and Union, has developed several hotly contested competitions since the 1800s. Matches between old rivals often have traditional names, such as the Calcutta Cup between England and Scotland. International games are often played as visiting “test” tours. The annual Six Nations Trophy includes French, Italian, English, Scottish, Irish and Welsh teams. In 1987, Australia and New Zealand hosted the first Rugby World Cup, with New Zealand taking the inaugural Webb Ellis Cup.

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The New Badminton Rules

In August 2006, the Badminton World Federation, or BWF, changed the laws of badminton in order to add extra excitement to the game. The rule changes were designed to regulate the duration of each match and make the sport more appealing for television audiences. All court measurements and equipment laws have remained unchanged, as have the basic playing methods. The main changes have been to the scoring system.
As with the former rules of badminton, you have to win two out of three games to win a match. However, the traditional 15 points format has now been replaced with a 21 points format. Before the rule changes, each game would be won by the first player to score 15 points, or 11 points for women. The new rules state that the first player to score 21 points will win each game. This rule applies for both men and women.
The new scoring system has not lengthened the duration of each match. Due to the new points system, the game now flows more rapidly. Points used to be won only on the serve, meaning that the receiving player had to break his opponent¡¯s serve in order to win the right to serve and therefore score points. The new rules have introduced what is known as a ¡°rally scoring system.¡± A player or team can now win a point in any rally, regardless of who served.
The 21 point format has also brought in new laws for tied games. According to the official Badminton World Federation Laws of Badminton, ¡°If the score becomes 20-all, the side which gains a two point lead first, shall win that game.¡± If the score becomes 29-all, the player or team to score the 30th point will win the game.
Due to changes in the points scoring system, players now receive a 60-second break when one side reaches 11 points. All players get a two-minute break between each game.
All of the new rules also apply to doubles matches. An additional change has been introduced into the doubles serving system. As stated by the BBC Sport website, ¡°A team now has only one serve in doubles, rather than two under the old rules.¡±
The new badminton rules have reduced the playing time needed to complete a full match. According to the Badminton Information website, it was not uncommon for an old format match to last for two hours. The new rules have reduced the average match time to about an hour. The rally scoring system has also changed the tactical nature of the game. As the Badminton Information website states, ¡°Avoiding making unforced errors is crucial here because every rally counts.¡±

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Stretches for Collapsed Arches

The arches of your foot are helpful in acting as shock absorbers. Because the entire foot does not hit the ground, you experience less strain on the joints and less pull on the ankles. As you age, the arch in your foot can drop or collapse, making your feet more flat. This can cause pain and discomfort when walking or exercising. In addition to wearing more supportive shoes, you also can perform exercises that strengthen the muscles that pull on the arches, known as the tibialis posterior.
The toe raise with eversion exercise helps to stretch and strengthen the tibialis posterior muscles and can be performed throughout the day. Start by standing with your feet hip width apart. Focus your weight on the outside edges of your feet, feeling your arches lift slightly. Slowly rise on the balls of your feet, trying to concentrate most of your weight on your outer toes and feel the arch lifting. Pull your knees in slightly with your weight still focused on your outer toes. Hold this position for 10 seconds, then lower the feet to the ground.
If you have access to a sandy beach, walking on the beach one to two times per week can help to stretch and strengthen collapsed arches. You do not have to walk quickly for the exercise to be effective. Instead, focus on spreading your toes as you walk and feeling a stretch in the back of your foot. Keep your feet in line with your knees, taking steady careful steps.
The towel scrunch exercise helps to stretch and strengthen your arches. To perform, stand with one foot in the center of a hand towel. Scrunch your toes in and straighten them out to bunch the towel as much as possible. When you have scrunched the towel, use your feet to stretch the towel back out. Repeat on the opposite foot.
The stork stretch involves standing with one foot on the floor and lifting the other foot up to increase pressure on your foot on the floor. Start by standing on one foot near a wall or other supportive furniture. Imagine someone is lifting your foot at your arches as you lift the foot to put the tops of your toes on the floor and increase the pressure on your heels. Hold this position for 10 seconds as you feel the muscles in your foot strengthening. Release the stretch and repeat on the opposite foot.

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Expected Progress of Physical Therapy After Shoulder Surgery

Shoulder surgery can be a complex procedure, and recovery can vary widely, depending on the extent of the surgery and the severity of the damage. Physical therapy should begin immediately following surgery and can last weeks to months. You must progress through each stage of physical therapy before moving on to the next. Your rate of progression largely depends on the outcome of the surgery, as well as how consistent you are with performing your therapeutic tasks.
The first stage begins almost immediately after surgery. In this stage, your shoulder may be temporarily immobilized; however, your doctor may have you begin to move your arm and shoulder as early as the first or second day. You will also need to ice your shoulder. Ice will help control swelling and provide temporary pain relief. Ice often throughout the day for about 20 minutes at a time. The first stage may last a week or longer, depending on the type of surgery.
As your shoulder begins to heal, light massage may be necessary to help maximize the mobility of your shoulder joint and to reduce lingering swelling. You will also begin range of motion exercises. There are two kinds of range of motion exercises: passive and active. In passive range of motion, you lie still while a physical therapist moves your shoulder through its range of motion. In active range of motion, you move your shoulder by yourself. This stage can begin as soon as you are able and can last several weeks.
Once your shoulder has healed to the point where you can effectively complete a variety of active range of motion exercises, you can begin performing exercises to strengthen the muscles that support your shoulder joint. After surgery, the affected muscles may atrophy, or lose size and strength. To reverse this effect, a physical therapist will direct you through a series of exercises that are designed to rebuild muscle tissue that was lost or damaged during and after surgery. As your muscles strengthen, the exercises will become more advanced. This stage may last weeks to months following surgery.
When you have regained normal strength and flexibility in your shoulder, you can return to normal activity. Even though you may be fully recovered from your injury and subsequent recovery, your physical therapist may still recommend that you continue to perform the flexibility exercises given to you in the second stage and the strengthening exercises from the third stage. This will help ensure that the muscles and ligaments that support your shoulder joint remain strong and flexible, reducing the chance of reinjuring your shoulder.

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Exercising After Pericarditis

If you¡¯re one of the thousands of people diagnosed with pericarditis each year, you might have felt like you were having a heart attack because the symptoms are similar. Pericarditis can even affect healthy young athletes and children due to a viral infection, autoimmune disease or trauma. Although the condition might keep you from exercising and training until it¡¯s cleared up, you should eventually be able to return to normal activity.
The pericardium is a thin, double-layered sac on the surface of your heart filled with fluid. It serves an important function — shielding the heart from infection or from overexpanding, but it can become inflamed and swollen, leading to a buildup of excess fluid. Symptoms include a sharp stabbing pain that might radiate into your back, neck or left shoulder; difficulty breathing when lying down; a dry cough; and anxiety or fatigue. Most cases are found in men ages 20 to 50, although it can also affect women. Treatment includes various medications that should clear up the condition, although it often recurs.
An article from the Saint Louis University School of Medicine, published in ¡°Current Sports Medicine Reports¡± in April 2006, recommends that athletes with pericarditis refrain from all physical exercise until tests show there¡¯s no evidence of active disease. After that time, they should be able to return to play. Dr. David Stewart, medical director at the Heart and Vascular Institute of Providence Everett Medical Center, adds that pericarditis typically takes one to three weeks to heal, although trying to exercise too soon afterward can cause a recurrence. If your pericarditis is accompanied by myocarditis, an infection of the heart muscle, it might be four to six weeks before you can begin exercising again.
Exercise won¡¯t prevent or cure pericarditis, but it can improve your strength and endurance. Stronger muscles will help your heart use oxygen more efficiently, and the heart won¡¯t have to work as hard to pump blood. The reduced blood pressure will increase your overall health and fitness level, as well as help boost your disease-fighting immune system.
After treatment ends, start exercising slowly at first and work with your doctor or physical therapist to create a personalized exercise routine. Slow walking is a good way to ease back into activity, while your therapist monitors your blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac rhythm. As your endurance increases, you can start adding brisk walking, running, cycling or swimming. If you experience any shortness of breath or rapid heartbeat, or if you cough up blood or have unexplained weight loss, consult your doctor.


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