Month: December 2016

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Will Walking Re-Tear a Meniscus?

The meniscus, which is a structure located within the knee joint, is a common site for injuries. Treatment for a damaged meniscus depends on the severity and cause of the injury; your physician can help determine the best course of treatment. Once your injury has healed, you will need to exercise to recover and prevent complications. Your doctor and physical therapist can review your personal medical history with you to decide if walking is a good exercise option or if your risk of re-injury is too high to walk.
Your meniscus, which is a piece of cartilage shaped like the letter “C,” acts as a shock absorber, because it helps lubricate your joint and limits your range of motion to protect against injury. Menisci are found in several joints in the body including the knees. A torn meniscus in the knee is a common injury. In most cases, meniscus tears are caused by twisting, over extending the knee, or doing other abrupt movements that place excessive stress on the cartilage. Part of your treatment plan is to determine the movements that caused the tear, so that you can avoid re-tearing it in the future.
The initial treatment for a meniscus tear is to apply ice, elevate and rest the knee to reduce pain and inflammation. You may even need to use crutches or wear a knee brace in order to limit weight bearing and movement in the knee. If pain and inflammation are severe, your physician may prescribe medications. During this period, physical therapy can help control the symptoms as well as teach you how to safely strengthen and stretch the muscles that support your knee. It is important to follow your doctor and physical therapist’s advice on what exercises to do, because if a torn meniscus does not heal properly, you may end up with a knee that is chronically painful and unstable and you may increase your risk of developing osteoarthritis, reports Mayo Clinic.
Walking is a good way to loosen the knee joint and begin to get comfortable placing weight on your knee. When it comes to certain activities such as walking, your therapist can evaluate the way you walk in order to spot issues that may contribute to a torn meniscus. However, each case is unique and there is no one rehabilitation program that is right for all patients. Some patients return to their pre-injury level of activity within weeks while other patients take months, notes the Orthopedic Center of St. Louis. The time frame that must pass before you can walk again without re-tearing the meniscus depends on how long your body takes to heal, your level of physical conditioning, and how hard you work at recovering.
In order to resume walking, your therapist may suggest performing certain exercises to correct muscular imbalances or walking patterns, such as rolling in or out on your foot. You may also benefit from orthotics that help correct your foot placement so that less stress is placed on the knee. You will need to learn to walk without twisting your knees, as rotational movements are the most common cause of meniscus tears, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. As you resume your walking program you will need to monitor your knee for signs of re-injury such as pain, stiffness, swelling, catching or locking sensations or knee instability. If symptoms occur, you may need to change the intensity of frequency of your walking program, or combine it with walking in the water or non weight bearing activities, such as biking, to take pressure off the knee. You may also need to avoid walking on hills or uneven ground until your knee gets stronger.


What Do Rugby Players Wear?

Rugby is a very aggressive contact sport. Unlike other contact sports, particularly football, rugby players wear a minimum of gear. Rugby players, or ruggers, worldwide wear essentially the same pieces of equipment. There are no helmets or pads, only uniforms, cleats and mouth guards. These few items are important elements of the sport, both functionally and culturally.
Rugby players wear short, stiff shorts called scrum shorts. Scrum shorts are less stretchy and more durable than soccer shorts, to withstand the wear and tear of tackling and grabbing. They generally end above the knee and have no pockets. They fit tightly around the waist to prevent them from getting pulled down.
Rugby players wear jerseys very similar to soccer jerseys, except that they usually have collars. They are traditionally made of cotton, but may be made of other materials. Rugby jerseys tend to be very colorful, displaying the colors or emblem of the team or country. The player’s number is printed on the back of the jersey in large font. The number helps to identify the player and his position. Rugby players must tuck their jerseys into their shorts during games.
Forgo flash for comfort. Whether you’re flat-footed or have a high arch, it’s important to be fitted by a professional. You also have to consider your position in the game when buying boots. As a forward, you’ll need extra protection around the ankle; while kickers want a boot that will allow them to feel the ball. Choose between leather and synthetic, or a combination of both; they all have something in their favor. It depends on what you prefer.
Ruggers wear knee-high socks that fit tightly around the feet and calves. Rugby socks often are decorated with the same colors as the player’s jersey. Rugby socks must be well-fitted to avoid blisters and prevent them from falling down during matches.
Though rugby players disdain pads and helmets, they do wear mouth guards. Mouth guards help protect against concussions, broken teeth and other mouth and head injuries common to the game.
Some ruggers, especially forwards, wear scrum caps. A scrum cap is simply a slightly padded helmet that fits over the top of the head and ears. It is the only protective piece of equipment that ruggers wear other than mouth guards ¡ª and it is completely optional. Some ruggers vehemently reject the scrum cap while others embrace it as a useful piece of gear.


Exercises to Help Bend a Broken Finger

A broken finger can really put a crimp in your ability to perform daily tasks. These injuries often require several weeks of immobilization to allow the bone heal correctly. However, tendons that move your fingers and the ligaments that hold your finger bones together can become stiff. A study published in 2012 by “The Open Orthopaedics Journal” points out that long-term stiffness is more likely to be a problem if your broken finger is immobilized longer than 3 weeks. Because broken fingers are often splinted in a straight position, it can be difficult to bend the finger once it has healed. Exercises such as tendon glides, blocking exercises and grip strengthening can improve finger bending after a fracture.
Tendon glides are a group of exercises that improve your ability to bend your fingers and make a fist. The tabletop fist bends the largest knuckles while keeping your fingers straight. The hook fist bends the middle and smallest joints of your fingers while keeping the largest knuckles straight. A flat fist bends the largest and middle knuckles of your fingers while keeping the smallest knuckles straight. The full fist bends all the joints of your fingers at the same time. You might perform some or all of these exercises, depending on your specific injury.
Depending on the location of your finger fracture, you may have difficulty bending one particular knuckle after the bone heals. Blocking exercises help direct force to the stiff knuckle to improve your ability to bend. One finger joint is held straight by the opposite hand while you bend and straighten the joint above. For example, to work on bending the knuckle at the tip of your finger, the middle joint is held in a straight position with your opposite hand. To direct the force to your middle joint, the large knuckle at the base of your finger is held in a straight position with the opposite hand.
Gripping exercises can improve your ability to bend your finger. However, to prevent further damage to your finger, you must be cleared by your doctor to perform strengthening activities before attempting these exercises. You might begin by squeezing a soft object such as a washcloth or sponge. As your bending improves, you might wet the washcloth or sponge to add resistance. You might also use exercise putty or other grip-strengthening exercise equipment.
Follow your doctor or hand therapist’s specific instructions for exercise after a finger fracture. Moving the finger too soon or in the wrong way can lead to permanent damage. Stop exercising and contact your healthcare provider if you experience increased pain or swelling while trying to bend your finger.


Is There an Ideal Weight for a Six Foot Male?

Your weight is often an indication of your fitness level, and your healthy weight range is directly proportionate to your height. If you weigh too much for your frame, you could be at greater risk for heart disease, stroke and diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fortunately, your body mass index can help you easily determine the ideal weight for your height.
You should aim for a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9, whether you’re male or female. At 6 feet — or 72 inches — this means that your ideal weight range is about 140 to 183 pounds. However, it’s still possible to fall in this range and have dangerous levels of body fat. You carry much of your fat around the middle, so measuring your waistline will give you a fuller picture. Men who have a waist circumference of greater than 40 inches probably have too much body fat, and are therefore at risk for obesity-related illnesses.


How Do Youth Sports Help Kids in Academics?

Youth sports can have many benefits for young people. Some include learning the sport they play, understanding what it takes to compete and the enjoyment of being part of a team. Playing sports also teaches youngsters about responsibility and being part of a team — the importance of teamwork. Since participating in youth sports is a privilege, children have to earn that right by performing well in school.
Students are often required to maintain a specific average by their teachers in order to become eligible to play. If students want to get on the field, the court or the ice, they have to earn that privilege by performing well in the classroom. Playing sports serves as motivation for doing well in the classroom.
By concentrating their efforts on becoming eligible to play by doing well in class, students learn to focus their mind on the subject matter. This allows them to learn more than if they did not have such motivation, and helps them to get the most out of time spent in class and studying.
Playing sports often boosts a youngster’s sense of self-worth because she is surrounded by teammates who may become friends. The increased social status often results in an improved attitude that often translates into the child becoming more enthusiastic toward a variety of activities ¡ª including academic pursuits. According to researchers at Michigan State University’s Institute for the Study of Youth Sports, young people who play sports perform better in school than those who don’t.
One of the top benefits of participating in sports is that athletes who perform well in their chosen field and meet their academic responsibilities may be able to win a scholarship. While the scholarship may be based on their success in sports, it gives young people the chance to gain an education that they might not otherwise be able to afford.
While the educational and athletic system can work extremely well to help young people develop athletically, academically, socially and morally, the system can be corrupted by teachers and coaches who use the system for their own purposes. For example, a star running back might not be able to play because he is not performing up to standard in the classroom. If his coach attempts to pressure the teacher, or if the teacher gives the student a “break” and lets him play even though his academic performance is substandard, the system is defeated. Instead of learning about time management and work ethic, the student learns that those with power and influence can get what they want even if they didn’t earn the privilege.


Youth Football Defensive End Drills

In youth football, you do not have to worry about complicated passing offenses. The defensive end’s job in youth football is generally to contain the offensive running game and turn the play back to the inside. Any time the ball goes outside of the offensive tackle, the defensive end must be able to get off of the block and make the play.
Whether you use a four-man front or a five-man front, the defensive ends are responsible for containment, which means that no one running the ball can get outside of them. To hone this skill, have the defensive end attack the outside shoulder of an offensive lineman. His hands should go to the outside shoulder and armpit of the tackle to control him. Do not have the defensive end rush upfield, as this leaves too much room inside for the running back to run through. Instead, have the end practice staying on the line of scrimmage with his arms locked out to control the tackle. When he sees the ball carrier, he should throw the tackle to the inside and go make the play.
In youth football, most teams use double teams on the tackle when running a sweep to his side. The tackle and tight end will double the end to get to the outside of the defense. Teach your end how to defeat a double team. He should never try to go around the blockers. Have him line up on the outside shoulder of a tackle, with a tight end outside of them. When both blockers come to him, the end should try to drive a foot between the blockers and turn his hips to get skinny and slide between the linemen. Once they turn their shoulders in toward each other, the end has won. At times in the drill, the end will try to step through and be unable to. If this happens, the end must go to the ground, pulling both linemen down on top of him at the line of scrimmage to create a pile in the hole.
Young ends need only two moves on a pass rush. In a one-on-one pass rush drill, or against stand-up dummies, have the end attack the outside shoulder of the tackle. He should run upfield, leaning into the tackle and dipping his inside shoulder, ripping his inside arm up through the armpit of the tackle while curving toward the quarterback. After he makes this move a few times, the tackle will begin to rush backward to cut him off. The end should rush upfield for four steps, then plant on his outside foot and run inside of the retreating tackle, dipping the outside shoulder and ripping the inside arm of the tackle.


The Effects of the Game of Basketball on America

Basketball was invented by Dr. James Naismith in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1891. Naismith, who later taught at the University of Kansas, had been searching for a game of skill that could be played indoors in a relatively small space during the harsh New England winters. The first game was played with a soccer ball and two peach baskets. The sport is now a worldwide phenomenon; elite players sign multimillion dollar contracts and pro games are shown on national and international channels.
Basketball is a popular sport in the United States, especially in urban areas where space is limited and playing fields are few and far between. According to a 2001 Gallup poll, 47 percent of Americans consider themselves college basketball fans. Many kids grow up playing in their neighborhood court, on private traveling teams, representing their schools, or a combination of the three. College basketball at the national level offer what many call the most competitive and entertaining games; as a result, offices across the country have competitions or ¡°pools” in which entrants predict which of the initial 64 teams will win the annual NCAA tournament.
The basketball court also reflected some of the major cultural tshifts in America, such as from segregation to integration. African-Americans weren¡¯t permitted to participate in National Basketball Association games until 1950, when Earl Lloyd played for the Washington Capitals. African-American players had a style of play that, according to the NBA, emphasized ¡°speed, agility, superior jumping ability and creative ball handling,¡± which today are the hallmarks of the game that millions of Americans love. Wilt Chamberlain and Elgin Baylor were two of the earliest players to show the dominance that Michael Jordan would later be known for. Along with this dominance came the birth of the American sports superstar; because of their worldwide media and commercial profile, these superstars have become ambassadors of America across the globe.
Basketball also has impacted American culture. The film ¡°Hoosiers,¡± loosely based on a real-life story of a winning basketball team, garnered Oscar nominations and illustrated how basketball could serve as the focal point for high drama in small towns. Later, ¡°White Men Can¡¯t Jump¡± about a team of basketball hustlers, was a box office success and also dramatized the role basketball could play in inner-city street life. Michael Jordan¡¯s ¡°Space Jam¡± illustrated the way that Jordan became a household name even for those for whom basketball meant nothing.
Commercial success on the part of Nike, a struggling shoe company in 1984 according to, can partially also be attributed to Michael Jordan. The Air Jordan sneaker and Jordan¡¯s endorsement paved the way for two American trends: huge endorsement fees for star players and the coveting of equipment endorsed by these star players, often priced much higher than similar-quality competitor brands. The role basketball and its modern prince, M.J., played in the commercialization of sports and sports stars in America should not be be underestimated.


How to Put on Weight for Football

Being bigger and heavier is an advantage for most football players, due to the physical demands of the sport. While you likely want to put on weight to play, you don¡¯t want to lose any athleticism or speed by gaining fat instead of muscle. To effectively put on the pounds and become a football force to reckon with, participate in a high-volume weight training program and adhere to a diet that supports muscle growth.
A high-volume weight training workout is designed to increase muscle mass. It will also help ensure that the extra calories you consume puts on muscle rather than fat. Lift weights four days per week, targeting your muscle groups with separate workouts. For example, hit your lower body on Mondays and Thursdays, and your upper body on Tuesdays and Fridays. Do not work the same muscle group two days in a row; the muscles need at least a day to recover from the workout. Physiologist Joseph A. Chromiak, Ph.D., writing for the National Strength and Conditioning Association, recommends doing two to three sets of five to 12 reps of each exercise during each workout. Give your muscles just 60 to 12 seconds of rest between sets.
Forget the isolation exercises and instead focus on compound, multi-joint exercises. They¡¯re more effective for building muscle mass, according to the American Council on Exercise, and they¡¯re also better for training for football. Back squats, for example, more closely mimic the movements that your lower body has to handle during football than straightening your legs on the leg extension machine. Quality compound exercises that will help you put on mass include squats, deadlifts, hang cleans, push jerks, snatches, bench press, military press and pullups.
To put on weight and fuel the muscle-building process, you¡¯ve got to consume adequate calories. You can gain a single pound of muscle mass by creating a caloric surplus of 3,500; if you’re not adhering to your workout program as outlined, however, these excess calories will translate into a pound of fat rather than muscle. This caloric surplus needs to be created gradually, however. Shoot for an excess of 250 to 500 calories everyday, said Chromiak. This allows you to put on 1/2 to 1 pound of muscle every week. Make sure your meals feature a high amount of protein, which is required to put on muscle; take in 0.65 to 0.8 grams of protein daily for every pound you weigh, Chromiak advised.
Instead of shooting for three large meals, consume smaller meals throughout the day. This will help ensure that the excess calories are used for the muscle-building process and not stored as fat. Eat a meal consisting of both protein and carbohydrates within 30-minutes after completing each of your weight training workouts. You can significantly increase protein synthesis by getting in fuel during this short period after your workouts, said Chromiak.


The Average Speed of a Baseball

The average speed of a baseball varies greatly according to the circumstances. The speed of a ball after it is hit depends on the weight of the bat and the momentum of the swing. The average speed of pitched balls depends on the type pitch, including fast balls and curve balls, and the pitcher.
Assuming that for each pitch the same size ball is used and the pitch speed and swing speed are the same, a batted ball will have a faster velocity with a heavier bat. For his article titled “Bat Weight, Swing Speed and Ball Velocity,” PennState professor Daniel A. Russell relied in part on “Physics of Sports,” a high school textbook developed by Florida State University in 1980. That text reported results of experiments to test the speed of baseballs when the baseball mass, swing speed and pitch speed were kept constant. The study found that a bat weighing 20 ounces produced a batted ball velocity of 68.5 mph, while a 40-ounce bat produced a velocity of 80.4 mph. When the bat weight is kept constant, it’s the speed of the swing that makes the difference. A swing of 20.5 mph produces a baseball speed of 62.0 mph. A swing of 47.9 mph produces a baseball speed of 91.4 mph.
The speed of pitches depends greatly on the type of pitch that’s thrown. According to measurements — taken by eFastball’s editor using a radar gun — of pitches as they left the pitchers’ hands, college and pro players’ fastballs were typically thrown at an initial speed of 80 to 95 mph. In contrast, the speeds of a change-up pitch and a slider were about 70 to 85 mph. The speed of a curveball was about 65 to 80 mph and a knuckleball’s speed was about 55 to 70 mph.
Of course, the skill of the pitcher determines the speed of any pitched ball. According to “Popular Mechanics,” the “Guinness Book of World Records,” which accepts only speeds clocked by certified radar guns, lists Nolan Ryan’s 1974 pitch of 100.9 mph as the fastest. However, Major League Baseball has recorded even faster pitches. Another pitch by Ryan was clocked at 108 mph. One of Ryan’s fellow Hall of Famers, the late Bob Feller, pitched a ball at 107.6 mph, and Aroldis Chapman, a pitcher with the Cincinnatti Reds as of the date of publication, has recorded a 105.1 mph toss.
The average pitch speed among 14-year-olds would be about 65 mph, according to Steven Ellis, a former pitcher for the Chicago Cubs. Ellis stated that the average pitching speed required for a 14- to 15-year-old to make a good prospect for a junior varsity-level high school baseball team would be about 75 mph.


A List of All the Positions in Football & Their Responsibilities

The game of football gives players and fans the chance to experience exciting plays, thrilling wins and heartbreaking losses. Football has become the most popular sport in the U.S., with a fan base in countries all around the world. Fans have a greater appreciation of the game once they learn about the responsibilities of the different football positions.
One of the main aspects of football is the running game. The running backs, normally a fullback and a halfback, stand behind the offensive line. While their main duty is to run the ball down the field, running backs also catch passes and make blocks to protect the quarterback. As leaders of the offense, quarterbacks call plays, hand the ball to the running backs, and make passes to the receivers. Quarterbacks can run with the ball, especially if there’s not an open receiver down field.
Offensive linemen protect the quarterback and open holes for running backs. The center’s job is to snap the ball to the quarterback, to make blocks and to protect the quarterback. The guards and tackles make blocks for running backs and protect their quarterback while he throws passes. The tight end is an offensive lineman that blocks, but he also catches passes.
Quarterbacks throw passes to the wide receivers. The role of the receiver is to run pass routes. They use their speed and quickness to evade the other team’s defensive players as they try to get open to catch passes. Receivers also make blocks for the quarterback, for other receivers and for the running backs.
Defensive tackles, defensive ends and the nose guard make up the defensive line. The nose guard plays in the center of the defensive line. His job is to stop the run up the middle. Tackles play on either side of the nose guard and try to stop the run play. In some cases, they can break through and hurry or sack the quarterback. Defensive ends play at the end of the defensive line. Ends work to sack the quarterback and try to prevent running backs from getting farther down the field.
Linebackers are usually the best tacklers on the team. They play behind the defensive line and are responsible for defending both run and pass plays. The defensive backfield is made up of cornerbacks and safeties. Their job is to cover the wide receivers, to break up passes and to make interceptions. They also make tackles, work to stop the run and try to sack the quarterback.
The special teams, often the key to success in football games, are made up of a kicker, a punter, a long snapper and a place holder. The kicker’s job is to kick the ball off at the opening of the game and after every score. He also kicks the extra points after touchdowns, and he kicks field goals when the offense cannot score a touchdown. Place holders catch the ball from the center and hold it for the kicker as he kicks extra points or field goals. Punters kick the ball when the team does not score, and the long snapper is the center who snaps the ball during punts.

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