Month: February 2017

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Physical Therapy Games for Children

Children can have short attention spans, so working with them as a physical therapist can be challenging. Some children do not want to continually repeat the same motions or exercises, so it is important to figure a way to make the physical therapy session fun, while still achieving your goals. One way to do this is by turning the physical therapy exercises into games.
A variety of video games require movement and spatial awareness to move the characters on the screen. Therapy can have a reputation of not being fun, but by incorporating games, especially video games that children often see as play, into the therapy session, you will make the session more entertaining for the child and meet your goals more easily. Some clinics create their own games, while others use commercial video games. Popular video games feature sports such as golf, baseball, bowling and boxing. These games give the children the challenge of beating the game or the competitor while incorporating real motion. Video games can be more beneficial than playing the actual game, especially in a rehab facility, because it eliminates the weight of holding the golf club, baseball bat or bowling ball and focuses on the motion used to perform the sport.
Balls are a versatile modality in the physical therapy clinic. Smaller balls, like golf or tennis balls, can be used to massage muscles on the body, while larger balls like kickballs, basketballs or soccer balls can be used to develop hand-eye coordination or strength in the arms and legs. You can toss the ball back and forth to help develop the child’s reflexes or play kickball to develop speed, strength and coordination.
Children tend to be visual or auditory learners, or some combination of the two. Depending on the child, you may choose a game like Follow the Leader or Simon Says to incorporate movement and therapy in a fun way. Follow the Leader is geared more toward visual learners or children who participate more with you on an equal level. Simon Says is better for children who are auditory learners or who work better by seeing you as a figure of authority. Either exercise will allow you to tell or show the child what you want them to do, then allow him to perform the movement on his own.
Children tend to become bored with repetition, so it is important to keep the therapy session varied. One way to incorporate multiple exercises or use the same muscle groups in different ways is to set up an obstacle course. Different courses can be set up for children with varying physical difficulties. For example, if you have a patient who needs to build her leg strength, you may choose to set up a course that includes frog hops, sitting on a scooter and pulling herself with her legs, hopping or running for a set distance and performing lateral lunges through cones. If you have a patient who is working on balance or coordination, you may set up a course that includes a balance beam, throwing or catching a ball, riding a tricycle for a set distance or through cones and crawling through a tunnel.


What Does it Mean If a Team Has a Half a Game Lead in Baseball?

Due to a quirk in the way standings are calculated throughout a baseball season, the lead one team has over another is often described in half-games. For example, one team will have a half-game lead over another. The quirk is simple to understand in the context of how standings are compiled.
The phrase ¡°games back¡± describes the distance between two teams. To calculate how many games back one team is from the division leader, take the difference between the wins and losses of both teams. For example, if Team A has five wins and two losses, while Team B has two wins and five losses, Team B is three games behind Team A. It¡¯s a simple calculation, and all things being equal, the final result is rendered in full games when the season is complete.
A half game in the standings is basically one team¡¯s ¡°share¡± of the difference between two teams. For example, Team A is scheduled for a day game, while Team B is scheduled for a game at night, and both teams have the same record. If Team A wins its game, it moves ahead of Team B by half a game because it has one more win than Team B at that point, but the same number of losses.
Half-game advantages may show up in the standings whenever games remain to be played. For example, in 2013, baseball’s lone opening game was played on a Sunday night. Its winner, Houston, was listed in the Monday standings as being a half-game ahead of its division opponents though none of them had played. It’s rare throughout the year that all teams will have played the same amount of games, so some team may sport a half-game lead clear up until the last game of the year. Some sports, such as football, don’t see half-games persist for very long due to a more uniform schedule.
Generally, half-game differences in the standings are meaningless. Eventually, all teams will play the same number of games, except in rare circumstances. For example, if a game got rained out between teams out of playoff contention, and its result has no impact on the standings, the league could decide not to play it all. Those two teams may have a half-game in their final standings. You’ll never see this at the top of the final standings, though, since the league will always play a game that could decide the winner.


How To Eat 6 to 8 Meals a Day To Lose Weight

The concept of three square meals a day is not always conducive to successful weight loss. Eating between six and eight smaller meals may actually help you lose weight and keep it off. Your body adapts to the conditions you provide, and if you feed it sporadically, it may store fat and slow your metabolism, assuming food is scarce. Likewise, if it assumes food is plentiful, it can release saved energy that you have stored as fat, according to the Family Education website. Eating small, frequent meals is easy to do.
Eat a small meal shortly after waking, to stop the fast your body has been on as you slept. Include protein such as eggs, lean meat or yogurt, and multigrain toast or fruit. Drink water to rehydrate yourself after sleeping.
Eat meal number two sometime in the mid-morning. Refrain from using the word “snack,” which can have negative meanings. Meal two should consist of nuts, fruit, yogurt or you could make a smoothie with whey protein powder and frozen fruit.
Eat lunch near midday. A sandwich with lean meats, lettuce, tomato and cheese on multigrain bread with some nuts or a piece of fruit will suffice. Remember the meals must remain small. You do not double the amount of food, just the frequency of meals, according to
Eat your fourth meal at about 3 o’clock. This is typically the time when blood sugar plummets, and people reach for sugary snacks. Choose nuts, seeds, fruit or raw vegetables to maintain the stable blood sugar you have created throughout the day.
Eat a small dinner in the early evening, consistent with the portion sizes you have eaten all day. Lean meats, salad, rice or whole wheat pasta are good choices. Any extra leftovers can be used for tomorrow’s lunch.
Finish your eating day around 7 or 8 o’clock to help keep blood sugar levels stable overnight. Choose an evening snack with a good amount of fiber so it will break down slowly as you sleep.


Glutamine and Sprained Tendons

Overextending a joint or muscle can cause damage — sprains or strains — in the tendons, ligaments and muscles that support a joint. Injuries to tendons and ligaments require longer periods of time to heal that similar injuries to muscles. Supplementing with the amino acid L-glutamine can help speed the recovery process. Follow your doctor’s guidelines in treating and rehabilitating sprained tendons.
Tearing of the tendon tissue underlies all sprains. Sprains are classified into three grades according to severity: first degree with minor tears, second degree with moderate to severe tears and third degree with a complete tear. Symptoms of sprains include swelling, pain and tenderness. Second- and third-degree sprains can cause severely decreased range of motion and joint instability.
Mild first-degree sprains normally can be treated using the RICE method: rest, ice, compression and elevation. More severe sprains also may require immobilization as they begin to heal. Severe sprains and strains may require surgical repair of the tendon or ligament. Moderate to severe sprains should be treated under a physician’s supervision. Your doctor may recommend prescription or over-the-counter analgesic and anti-inflammatory medication.
L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in your body. L-glutamine is nonessential, meaning your body can produce sufficient amounts under normal conditions. Extreme physical activity, stress, surgery, prolonged illness or a low-protein diet can contribute to decreased glutamine levels. Amino acids, such as L-glutamine, are required to produce structural proteins to repair injuries such as strains and sprains.
Glutamine can help strengthen the immune system, prevent infections and lower stress hormone levels, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. Adequate dietary protein levels are required for proper wound healing. Studies reported in “Alternative Medicine Review” have shown the amino acids L-glutamine and L-arginine assist with wound healing above the effects of having sufficient dietary protein. L-glutamine and L-arginine are known to be abundant in muscles and tendons and play important roles in the immune system as well.
L-glutamine occurs naturally in your body and does not, itself, have any side effects. However, glutamine supplements may contain allergens or other impurities. Consult with your doctor before beginning supplementation. Supplemental L-glutamine is safe in doses of up to 14 grams per day, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center, although results may be seen with as little as 500 mg. Consult with your doctor to determine the best dose for you based on your injury, overall health and diet. Do not take L-glutamine with hot beverages or food, as heat denatures the amino acid.


Youth QB Football Drills

When you’re leading your team down the field to the end zone, you want to be on top of your game. Whether you’re in the NFL or playing your first year of football at school, as a quarterback, you have to set an example, and one way to ensure excellence on the field is to practice drills; repeatedly.
The several variations of knee drills all are designed to isolate the throwing motion and ensure proper mechanics. Knee drills help to develop wrist snap and learn proper release. Start with both knees on the ground and have your quarterbacks kneel five yards apart. Make sure players bring the ball up to a high position by the ear with both hands on the ball. Your elbow should lead the arm movement and exaggerate the follow-through. Remember the goal isn’t to throw hard but to work on the proper technique and isolate the arm. After performing throws on both knees for about five minutes, perform the same drill on one knee for five minutes, then do the drill on the other knee for five more minutes.
The circle drill is to work on throwing on the run. This prepares players for roll-out passes and teaches them touch and ball placement. To perform, jog in a circle playing catch. After a few minutes going one direction, jog in the other direction in a circle playing catch. Players should be about 10 yards apart in this drill. A key to this drill is to remember to square your hips and shoulders to your target before throwing.
This drill emphasizes follow-through and teaches squaring up and the proper release point. Have players stand 5 to 7 yards apart with their shoulders squared to each other. As the player makes a pass be sure to follow through and rotate the hips properly.
The drop drill teaches players the proper footwork for three-step, five-step and seven-step drops. This helps quickness of the drop and proper weight distribution. Players will start by taking a snap and taking a three-step drop by stepping back with the throwing foot, crossing over in front with the non-throwing foot for step two and finally stepping back again and planting with the throwing foot. This same drop style is used for five- and seven- step drops. After a few reps of mastering the footwork, begin to incorporate throws into the drills. Three-step drops are for shorter, quicker throws; five steps for intermediate depth and routes; and seven steps are for deeper or slower developing routes.


Police Officer Strength & Fitness Training

Whether they are sitting in a police cruiser for several hours or chasing a perpetrator on foot, a career in law enforcement is a dynamic experience that requires officers to be healthy and well conditioned year round. A law enforcement strength and fitness training program can keep you ready for action and prevent you from becoming injured. Understanding what exercises relate best to job tasks will help you build a program that is law enforcement specific.
Police officers and deputy sheriffs perform one of the toughest jobs in America. Muscular strength and aerobic capacity are essential components of a strength and fitness program designed for law enforcement officers. To help develop and maintain these components, a training program must address muscular strength, anaerobic power, muscular endurance, trunk strength, flexibility, and cardio respiratory endurance within a single workout.
Your workout may consist solely of stretching and calisthenics or may involve gym equipment depending on the amount of time you have to train. Job specific exercises such as dead lifts can be used to mimic picking up a suspect. Pullups can help develop grip strength used when detaining a suspect, or the strength needed climb a fence while in pursuit. Pushups and situps help to develop core strength used in all aspects of your job. Lastly, be sure to include sprints and long distance runs as they will help develop the cardiovascular endurance you need to apprehend suspects.
Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist Stew Smith agrees with the use of calisthenics as a way to fit exercise into your day. Smith advises law enforcement officers that, “easy to perform exercises and calisthenics such as pushups, pullups, dips, squats, lunges, abdominal and lower back exercises make it possible for the busiest of us to exercise anywhere in as little time as 15 to 20 minutes.” The duration of the exercise is not as important as the intensity and ensuring that all major muscle groups are involved.
Suddenly having to jump out of your car to chase down a suspect can cause injury after you’ve spent hours sitting in the car. Maintaining flexibility is an important way to help avoid injury and stretching at least your legs and lower back at the end of each workout can substantially decrease your risk of injury. Stretching will also help to break up lactic acid that builds in your muscles as a result of working out. One tip is to hold each stretch for four to five deep breathes. This will also help to bring oxygen to the muscles, further decreasing lactic acid.
Aside from the overall fitness benefits you will receive from scheduling a work out in your day, there are other important reasons you should workout. One well noted benefit is creation of a better “command presence.” Building a stronger muscle base may help you elicit quicker compliance to verbal commands, lessening the incidence of injuries to an officer or a suspect.


Schwinn 4-in-1 Bicycle Pump Instructions

The Schwinn Air Driver 700 4-in-1 bicycle pump uses an internal switch valve to automatically shift between needle-valve and bike-valve modes. The four functions include filling bike tires fitted with either Presta or Schrader valves, inflating sports equipment and pumping up auto tires with Dunlop valves by using a brass conversion fitting. Occasional problems with sticky internal parts confuse many owners, but a simple fix usually puts the pump right again.
Remove the plastic cap from the valve stem on the bike tire. Confirm the type of valve. Presta valves have a plunger tip held closed by a cylindrical threaded nut. Schrader valves have a plunger inside the valve opening that releases air when pressed. Unscrew the plunger nut on Presta valves to the top of the plunger.
Turn the outer ring of the Schwinn 4-in-1 pump nozzle counterclockwise to remove the ring from the pump. Pull out the two pump fittings inside the nozzle — one hard plastic ring and one rubberized valve fitting. Each face of the plastic ring fits a corresponding face on the valve fitting. One side of the valve fitting shows a cylindrical nozzle and the other a central plunger.
Adapt the pump for Presta valves by inserting the cylindrical end of the rubberized fitting into the larger side of the hard ring. Place the assembly back in the pump nozzle, with the rubberized part entering first, and thread the outer ring back on the nozzle.
Slip the pump nozzle over the Presta valve on the tire and raise the locking lever on the back of the pump.
Grasp the pump handle at the bottom of the pump body and pull the handle all the way out. Depress the pump handle rapidly three times to properly seat the pump’s internal valve. Pump the tire up, depress the locking lever and remove the pump from the valve stem.
Remove the outer ring of the pump nozzle and both internal parts. Press the plunger side of the valve fitting into the smaller aperture of the hard plastic ring. Replace the nozzle assembly in the housing, rubberized part first, and replace the outer ring of the nozzle.
Press the pump nozzle over the Schrader valve and lift the pump’s locking lever.
Pull the pump plunger out and pump three times in quick succession to seat the interval pump valve. Pump the tire to the desired pressure.
Depress the locking lever and remove the pump from the tire’s valve.
Lift the pump’s locking lever and remove the brass fitting from the socket beneath. Press the locking lever down again.
Remove the pump nozzle’s outer ring. Remove both internal fittings and set the rubberized section aside. Insert the smaller end of the brass fitting into the larger side of the hard ring. Insert the assembly into the nozzle with the hard ring entering first.
Replace the outer ring of the pump nozzle and use the assembled nozzle to inflate either Presta valves or Dunlop tire valves.
Turn the center portion of the pump nozzle to swing the inflation needle out of the socket in the pump body. Swing the needle out 180 degrees.
Moisten the inflation needle and insert the needle into the rubber friction valve on the inflatable sports equipment.
Pull the pump handle out and pump the item up to pressure. Remove the pump needle from the valve and rotate the needle back into the pump handle’s slot.


Rehabilitation Exercises for Lisfranc Fracture Dislocation

Your Lisfranc joint, also known as the tarsometatarsal joint, lies within your midfoot area as part of a bone cluster that makes up the arch along the top part of your foot. The joint plays a role in transferring force between your midfoot and forefoot area. Common symptoms of a fracture or dislocation include swelling and inability to bear weight. Rehabilitation exercises for a Lisfranc fracture dislocation help restore foot flexibility and increase strength. Not all exercises may be for you, so consult with your doctor first.
Start viewing towels as versatile exercise tools as part of your rehabilitation exercises for a Lisfranc fracture dislocation. Strengthen your foot muscles while also improving your toe flexibility by doing some towel scrunching exercises. Sit upright in a firm chair and spread a towel on the floor in front of your chair. Place your injured foot onto the towel. Use your toes to start scrunching up the towel underneath your foot, bringing it back toward the chair. Keep your heel on the floor at all times. Do this exercise for two minutes. Gently lift your foot and straighten the towel. Relax 10 seconds. Repeat this exercise five times.
Another way to utilize a towel as part of your rehabilitation exercises for a Lisfranc fracture dislocation is by doing side inversion maneuvers. Sit upright in a firm chair and spread out a towel on the floor. Place your injured foot onto the towel end closest to your body. Slowly lift your foot, but not your heel, and move the towel sideways toward your body. If done correctly, your ankle will be doing an inward rotation. Make 10 sideways maneuvers. Spread the towel straight and relax 10 seconds. Repeat the exercise five times. Use newspaper if a towel is not available.
Working on your ankle strength and flexibility plays an important role during rehabilitation exercises for a Lisfranc fracture dislocation. Accomplish this goal by doing some ankle bending maneuvers while either immersed in warm water or sitting upright in a firm chair on land. Gently lift your injured leg in front of your body. Slowly bend your ankle so your toes face the floor, according to the University of Washington Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine Department. Hold position five seconds. Slowly return to original position. Relax 10 seconds. Gently and slowly bend ankle so toes point upward. Hold position five seconds. Return to original position. Relax 10 seconds. Repeat exercise 10 times.
Some individuals may find exercising on land too painful due to physical limitations or excessive pain. Doing your rehabilitation exercises for a Lisfranc fracture dislocation in water will help increase mobility while relaxing muscles and lowering pain levels. Do some toe flexions by first getting in some warm waist- or chest-deep water. Gently lift your injured foot to a comfortable level. Slowly move your toes toward the pool’s bottom. Hold position five seconds. Return toes to original position. Relax 10 seconds. Slowly lift toes toward ceiling. Hold position five seconds. Repeat exercise 10 times.


What Do Football Players Rub on Their Skin During Cold Weather?

Football is a game that is often played in extreme weather. At the start of the year, players practice in intense heat and humidity that can be draining and dangerous. However, as the season progresses and the weather turns cold, players are at risk to skin exposure during frigid weather. In order to protect themselves, players may put protective barriers on their skin.
Even in games played in extreme cold weather conditions — less than 20 degrees Fahrenheit — you still see many offensive linemen on the field playing with bare arms. This is often done for tactical reasons. Defensive players will grab any part of a player’s garb to use it as an edge for gaining leverage. This would include long sleeves. As a result, players rub petroleum jelly over all exposed parts of the skin to prevent heat from escaping. However, officials often take a dim view of the petroleum jelly because players are not allowed to make themselves more slippery to opponents. They will allow petroleum jelly in extreme cold conditions, but they will not allow it to be slathered on in heavy amounts.
Some players will use a cream especially designed to warm the skin under brumal — wintertime — conditions. This type of produce is a popular alternative for players when the weather is not only cold but windy. It doesn’t necessarily keep heat in, but it does shield players from the impact of the wind, according to former Philadelphia Eagle defensive back Brian Dawkins.
Players like to use muscular balms and rubs on their bodies when playing in brutal conditions. When the temperatures are extremely cold, muscles tend to tighten up. Products that produce heat warm up the muscles and keep them looser for longer periods. While the effect will not last throughout the game, these products can be re-applied at halftime.
Some players who have to face brutal winter conditions come up with their own warming options. They may combine petroleum jelly with a muscle balm so it spreads more evenly on their bodies. Some players will add an ointment that produces a lot of heat to the mixture. This ointment is normally applied to sore muscles, athletic injuries and arthritis. However, it can also be an effective ingredient in homemade skin rubs for players who have to play in cold weather.


What Is the Difference Between Aerobic & Anaerobic Exercise?

You may be aware that you should be taking time out of your busy schedule to exercise every week, but what you may not be aware of is how much of that time should be spent performing aerobic or anaerobic exercise. Knowing what type of physical activity is either aerobic or anaerobic can make all the difference to both your long-term health and how much time you should be spending on an elliptical machine or lifting weights. Always consult your doctor before beginning any new exercise regimen.
Aerobic exercise is any activity that uses your arms and legs to move your body. Your muscles are used in continuous (and generally easy-to-perform) rhythmic or repetitive motions, increasing your heart rate and respiration while building your physical endurance. Aerobic means ¡°with oxygen¡± — aerobic exercise uses oxygen to burn fat and carbohydrates, producing energy.
The American College of Sports Medicine splits aerobic exercise into three groups, defined by varying demands of physical activity. The first group is defined by easy physical activities such as walking, jogging, cycling and climbing stairs. The second group includes moderate to intense exercise such as dance classes, hiking, swimming and bench stepping. The third group covers intense and strenuous exercise involved in skilled sports such as basketball, tennis or volleyball.
Anaerobic exercise targets your individual muscles. Because you¡¯re not jumping around and moving your entire body, this type of exercise doesn¡¯t require oxygen, and only burns carbohydrates. Anaerobic exercise builds muscle through short bursts of strenuous activity like weightlifting or performing push-ups at high levels of intensity. This type of exercise builds your skeletal muscle, increasing your overall levels of power and strength through weight and resistance exercises using gravity and your own body weight or machines.
Aerobic exercise can strengthen your heart and reduce your resting heart rate, while increasing the number of red blood cells that help distribute oxygen throughout your body. It also helps with weight loss if you combine it with a healthy, calorie-controlled diet. Aerobic exercise also can potentially reduce your chances of developing heart disease, strokes, high blood pressure, diabetes and some forms of cancer; and it can improve your immune system and stamina. Results do vary based on individual, though, and again, always consult your doctor to help determine the best diet and exercise plan for your particular situation.
Anaerobic exercise can strengthen your bones, decreasing your risk of osteoporosis. It can also improve the strength of your tendons and ligaments while also improving joint function. It can reduce the risk of potential injuries and improve your cardiac function. Lastly, anaerobic exercise can elevate your levels of good cholesterol (HDL). Again, these benefits are obtained in combination with a healthy diet, and results vary by individual.

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